Ứng dụng Collocation vào Speaking – Unit 21: Academic writing 2 – structuring an argument

Tiếp nối Unit 20, hãy cùng tiếp tục tìm hiểu các cụm từ hữu ích được sử dụng để trích dẫn luận điểm nhé.

Nguồn: English Collocations In Use Intermediate – Unit 33

A. Organising the text

Adverbs in English fall into two main categories: those ending in –ly (e.g. softly) and those with other endings (e.g. well).
Later, I shall make reference to the work of Georgi Perelmutter, a leading figure in the field of zoology.
In this chapter, I draw a distinction between societies where democracy has developed slowly and those where it came about quickly or suddenly.
Chapter 3 raises important questions about the need for transport planning inrapidly growing urban environments. It also touches on issues such as pollution.
But we also need to take into consideration the economic history of Latin America as a whole.
This chapter makes a case for re-examining the assassination of President Kennedy in the light of evidence which has emerged since 1963.

(Nhấn vào đây để xem hướng dẫn)

B. Reinforcing arguments

Many studies have attempted to assess the significance of diet in the prevention of cancer.
Wastov lays emphasis on examining the vital first three years of a child’sdevelopment.
These statistics lend support to the view that attitudes to the environment arechanging fundamentally.
Some economists hold firmly to the belief that a certain level of unemployment is inevitable.

(Nhấn vào đây để xem hướng dẫn)

C. More collocations for referring to arguments

The book The Eye of the Universe draws an analogy between the birth of the universe and a lottery. It also draws parallels between the formation of new stars and the birth and death of flowers. It presents the case for a complete rethinking of how we understand space. The author, Patrick Rivaux, puts forward the argument that the universe is as it is because we humans are here looking at it. The author takes up / adopts the position that the universe cannot have any beginning or end, and states his opinion that we can never understand the universe using the human ideas of time and space. He argues convincingly that the universe has a unique nature. He draws attention to new research which suggests that other universes may also exist alongside ours. He briefly summarises the views of leading physicists and mathematicians, disagrees profoundly with some of them and draws the conclusion that science alone cannot solve the mystery of the universe.

(Nhấn vào đây để xem hướng dẫn)

D. Exercise

Bài 1: Xem lại phần A và điền vào chỗ trống trong bài viết sau về chủ đề “Collocations”

Collocations in English (1) into a number of different categories. In this article I should like to draw a (2) between ‘ordinary’ collocations and those that are so fixed that they can be called idioms. Although my main focus is on ‘ordinary’ collocations, I shall also to some extent (3) idioms into consideration too. I plan to (4)a number of questions about learning collocations in a foreign or second language. I shall attempt to answer these questions by (5) reference to the work of the leading writers in the field. My intention is to make a strong (6) for a more intensive focus on collocation in the language learning process. I shall also (7) on issues such as pronunciation.

Bài 2: Xem lại phần B và C và hoàn thiện các collocations dưới đây

1. the significance of a factor
2. argue something very
3. an analogy
4. support to an argument
5. put an argument
6. firmly to a belief
7. attention to a new trend
8. emphasis on one factor
9. disagree with someone
10. a conclusion

Bài 3. Chọn collocation đúng

1. This paper (proposes / presents / offers) the case for the complete revision of the theory.
2. Recent research (hints / explains / suggests) that Jackson’s theory of economic development is flawed.
3. The author of the book (adopts / adapts / affects) an unusual position on the topic.
4. The writer of the article (explains / states / declares) his opinion very clearly.
5. The article concludes by (briefly / shortly / precisely) summarising the main points that the author wishes to put across.
6. The writer (does / draws / creates) some interesting parallels between life now and life in the Middle Ages.
7. I (keep / take / hold) firmly to my belief in the importance of basic human rights.
8. The book (rises / arises / raises) some key questions but fails to deal with them in a satisfactory manner.

Bài 4. Tìm và sửa lại 9 lỗi collocations trong bài đánh giá về một bài viết học thuật sau (Liệt kê các lỗi theo thứ tự xuất hiện)

Kerr takes in a controversial position in his latest article. He gets forward the argument that differences in behaviour between the sexes can be explained totally by the genes. He attempts to do a case for educating boys and girls separately in their primary school years. He argues, occasionally persuadingly, that both sexes would benefit from this. He pulls attention to recent research which, he claims, makes support for his argument. However, he fails to draw a number of important factors into consideration. He also gives no reference to the important work of Potter and Sinclair in this field. I am sure that I will not be alone in disagreeing highly with many of his conclusions.

1. =>
2. =>
3. =>
4. =>
5. =>
6. =>
7. =>
8. =>
9. =>

Điểm số của bạn là % – đúng / câu

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Kerr takes up a controversial position in his latest article. He puts forward the argument that differences in behaviour between the sexes can be explained totally by the genes. He attempts to make a case for educating boys and girls separately in their primary school years. He argues, occasionally convincingly, that both sexes would benefit from this. He draws attention to recent research which, he claims, lends support to his argument. However, he fails to take a number of important factors into consideration. He also makes no reference to the important work of Potter and Sinclair in this field. I am sure that I will not be alone in disagreeing profoundly with many of his conclusions.

E. Luyện nói

(*) Cố gắng sử dụng 1 số collocations Gợi ý để hình thành câu trả lời. Lưu ý là bạn KHÔNG cần dùng tất cả collocations này trong câu trả lời của mình, chỉ cần chọn ra 1 vài collocations hữu ích.

Part 2: Describe a time you did research at school or college.

You should say:

  • When and where you did the research
  • How you did it
  • And what the result was

raise questions, take into consideration, briefly summarise, assess the significance, lays emphasis on, lend support to, hold firmly to, make a case for, takes up / adopts the position, research suggests, draws the conclusion

Part 3: 

1. What should students do to produce good research?

briefly summarise, assess the significance, lays emphasis on, put forward the argument, lend support to, argues convincingly, draws the conclusion

2. How can students write a great essay?

take into consideration, draw an analogy, draw parallels, presents the case for, puts forward the argument, state opinions, draw attention to

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